What Is SATA Express and Why It Matters

Explaining SATA Express

The Serial ATA International Organization (SATA-IO) recently announced Serial ATA Revision 3.2 and with that comes the first implementation of SATA Express. You know what SATA Express is right? It is the new specification that blends PCI Express with Serial ATA to come up with a super faster interface that alleviates the SATA bottleneck that we’ve run into with the majority of high-end Solid-State Drives (SSDs). The SATA III specification allowed for up to 6Gbps (600MB/s), which was fast back in the day, but now with the new the SATA Express standard you can expect to speeds of up to 16Gbps (1.97GB/s) very soon.


The SATA Express standard supports both SATA and PCIe storage solutions, unfortunately you can’t run both in tandem. Basically this means that if you plug in a SATA device that you’ll be using just SATA and if you plug in a PCIe device you’ll be running through only PCIe.  The drive tells the host if it is PCIe of SATA. If you are running a PCIe device there will be 2 lanes of PCI Express available and that means you have the ability to have up to 16 Gbps (1970MB/s) of performance (8Gbps per lane) on PCIe Gen 3.0 or up to 10 Gbps (1000MB/s) on PCIe Gen 2.0. The PCI Express bus that you are running on and what bus the PCIe controller supports on the storage device is crucial.


The upcoming Intel 9 series of chipsets will natively support one SATA Express device, so get ready to hear all about SATA Express for years to come. Intel’s SATA Express implementation uses a pair of PCH PCIe Gen 2 lanes along with two SATA III ports for SATA Express. This means that it is limited to around 10Gbps (1000MB/s) when it comes to the data rate. This means that you won’t be tapping into the full power of the SATA Express specification right now since PCIe Gen 3 lanes aren’t being used, but it is 67% faster than that you get from a single SATA III solution. When it comes to real world sequential read/write performance, you are looking at up to 745/809MB/s on a SATA Express drive like the ASUS Hyper Express, which uses a pair of mSATA SSDs in RAID to get that performance. ASUS says users of their boards with SATA Express with the Hyper Express drive will be able to move a 10GB movie file in about 10 seconds. Running a pair of SATA III SSDs in RAID that are able to saturate the SATA III bus is similar to this, but it  is in the same ball park as a SATAe device that is able to max out its bus.


Computer users will be able to get 2000MB/s SATA Express performance once the chipset and controller companies move over to PCIe Gen 3 lanes. Some might be disappointed by this, but it doesn’t really matter today as there aren’t any PCIe Gen 3 PCH designs or SSD controllers available and you need both of those components to be updated to get close to that 20Gbps theoretical limit. It is obvious that Intel already supports SATA Express in the upcoming 9 series of chipsets, but we are highly doubtful that AMD will introduce support for SATA Express in any chipsets or SoC processor designs in 2014.  There is no word on when PCIe Gen 3.0 lanes will be included on the chipset side, but we know that Intel, LSI/SandForce, Marvell and Samsung are working on both PCIe Gen 2 x4 and PCIe Gen 3 controllers. One that should be coming to market later this year is the LSI SandForce SF3700 Flash Controller that was announced in November 2013.


Due to the fact that SATA Express supports both SATA and PCIe signaling as well as the legacy SATA connectors, there are multiple configuration options available to motherboard and device manufacturers when it comes to connectors. You’ll also see board makers using third party controllers to allow for more than one SATA Express connector on motherboards


The image above shows plug (a) which is built for attaching to a PCIe device. Socket (b) would be part of a cable assembly for receiving plug (a) or a standard SATA plug, and Socket (c) would mount to a backplane or motherboard for receiving plug (a) or a standard SATA plug. The last two connectors are a mating pair designed to enable cabling (e) to connect to desktop PC motherboards (d).

Here is an example of a real SATA Express cable and drive that we recently got to spend some hands on time with. 




One of the really neat things about the SATA Express data connector is that it backward compatible. So, if you aren’t using the standard 3.5-inch SATA data connector you can use the two standard SATA data ports to connect legacy devices to the system. It should be noted that the SATA Express cable delivers power, so there is an end that needs to be plugged into a power supply through a 15-pin SATA or 4-pin molex connector as SATAe devices will require power. It appears that SATA Express cables will not come with the motherboard, but will rather come with the SATA Express device or will need to be purchased on their own for the time being.


The SATAe connector is pretty massive at nearly two inches in length and not every Small Form Factor (SFF) system out there can fit a SATA Express connector on the board as there isn’t enough real estate for one. Many companies appear to be skipping the SATA Express interface and using an m.2 slot on mini-ITX boards due to the limited motherboard real estate available. M.2 is just a form factor though and is part of the SATA Express standard as well.

SATA Express also supports various host controller interfaces. You have the usual support for AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface), but SATA Express also supports Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe). NVMe looks really promising as it was designed from the ground up for SSDs and PCIe storage solutions. The bad news is that it is still some time away from being useful to consumers since Windows 8.1 isn’t fully NVMe ready and does not provide SATA software compatibility. Basically you can get a device running NVMe working in Windows 8.1 right now, but not as a boot device. NVMe is clearly the front runner to be the premier host controller interface and that will likely happen with the next version of Microsoft Windows is released. When it comes out you can expect to see better performance and latencies.

We hope this helps answer some of the questions that you have about SATA Express and if you still have any open questions please ask them and we’ll try to get them answered for you! You can also take a look at the ASUS Hyper Express drive that uses SATA Express here.

  • Andy Chow

    3 years later, we still have never seen a sata-express drive.

  • wtf

    ??? isn’t there 8 Bits to BYTE…!!!
    therefor 750 MegaBYTES to 6 GigaBITS (versus 600MB!!)
    and 2.148 GigaBYTES to 16 GigaBITS (versus 1.97GB!!)
    dude…at least get you math sorted out to have any credibility

    • Matt

      Due to encoding schemes in SATA there are more transmitted bits per 8bits of data resulting in an effective bandwidth below raw bandwidth. So a comment like this shows that you:
      1) don’t actually know what you’re talking about or
      2) you just need to boost your ego by insulting others or
      3) #1 and #2.

      dude…at lest get your specs sorted out to have any credibility

      • Penitent Man

        Damn that was good.

    • Dustin

      I don’t know the details, but in networking 10 bit can be sent for each 8 bits of data. The 2 extra bits can serve as error correction. My assumption is that something similar is happening here.

      This is why data rates are often quoted in bits across standards and devices. 1 byte can take 8-12 bits depending on the application.

  • BraveNewWhirled

    A good article and very helpful in getting me up to speed, as it’s been near 20 years since I built a ‘puter.

  • Hrafn

    That is a truly cumbersome connector/cable. Is there any advantage for cabled SATA-Express over M2 (for smaller, e.g. system, drives) and PCIE cards (for larger drives)? Also, given the number of SATAIII connectors that come standard on mobos these days, is backward compatibility to SATA really a big issue? It seems to be a solution is desperate search of a problem.

    • narg

      The problem has been around for a while. SATA 3 does not support some of the faster SSD drive specs that are already being produced. So, we currently have a bottleneck for some devices. And SATA 4 is going to take too long to get through the committees. So, Intel and a few others produced this temporary fix for the issue. Big problem? No. But still a problem for those trying to keep up the “Moore’s Law” thing.

      • Hrafn

        All SSDs are essentially cards, so why not a solution that actually treats them like a card — i.e. mSATA, M2 or PCIE (or some other, similar) slot? Why create a solution that necessitates an extremely cumbersome cable, in order to treat them like something they’re clearly not (i.e. a 2.5″ spindle drive)?

        SATA-Express is a BAD solution to minor problem for which better solutions already exist.

        • Yappy

          Try having 6 pci-e slots for PCIe / mSATA ports “hard drive” and call it a “minor” problem. You will be crying foul for expensive board, more PSU, bigger chassis and more cooling.

        • Hrafn

          How does pretending that a card (which is all an SSD is, even when you put that card into a 2.5″ enclosure) is a spindled-drive, and turning its slot into a complicated 3-part port, requiring a cumbersome cable to connect it, saving space, saving money or reducing power requirements?

          And I would suggest that any board that has “6” SATA-Express ports would be a very expensive niche market board (the most I’ve seen to date has been 2 SATA-Express ports on a single board).

        • dbaps

          It’s very interesting that this is rated at 10Gb/sec, the same as Thunderbolt version one. Of course Thunderbolt version 3 is up to 40 Gb/sec but 20 each way. I’m not sure they make internal Thunderbolt drives though… there are no version three drives that I know of just connectors like on the Dell XPS 2016 models.

        • Hrafn

          SATA Express has since been superseded by the U.2 connector, without much in the way of indication that either will see wide-scale deployment in the wild, with Gen3PCIEx4 (32Gb/s) M.2 cards (widely implemented on Skylake Intel MBs) and SSDs as normal PCIE cards predominating at the high end.

      • They still looking for free money

    • Myco Sys

      Yes – m2 only has 60 cycle endurance, and and does not provide the ability to connect 2 legacy sata drives to its plug. The buses and speeds provided my SATAe are also provided by M.2 – m2 format M even provides 4 PCIe lanes so can be faster.